His father died inand the family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a household comprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister, Elisabeth. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career, culminating in May when he was called to a chair in classical philology at Basel. At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed to that post. Before the opportunity at Basel arose, Nietzsche had planned to pursue a second Ph.
Macht[ edit ] Some of the misconceptions of the will to power, including Nazi Nietzsches will to power of Nietzsche's philosophyarise from overlooking Nietzsche's distinction between Kraft force and Macht power.
Early influences[ edit ] Nietzsche's early thinking was influenced by that of Arthur Schopenhauerwhom he first discovered in Schopenhauer puts a central emphasis on will and in particular has a concept of the " will to live ". Writing a generation before Nietzsche, he explained that the universe and everything in it is driven by a primordial will to live, which results in a desire in all living creatures to avoid death and to procreate.
For Schopenhauer, this will is the most fundamental aspect of reality — more fundamental even than being. Another important influence was Roger Joseph Boscovichwhom Nietzsche discovered and learned about through his reading, inof Friedrich Albert Lange's Geschichte des Materialismus History of Materialism.
Roux was a disciple of and influenced by Ernst Haeckel  who believed the struggle for existence occurred at the cellular level.
The various cells and tissue struggle for finite resources, so that only the strongest survive. Through this mechanism, the body grows stronger and better adapted.
Some believe[ citation needed ] the theory lacks modern genetic theory and assumes a lamarckian or pangenetic model of inheritance, thus making the theory plausible at the time. Elsewhere in The Gay Science he notes that it is only "in intellectual beings that pleasure, displeasure, and will are to be found",  excluding the vast majority of organisms from the desire for power.
Dumont believed that pleasure is related to increases in force. The concept, at this point, was no longer limited to only those intellectual beings that can actually experience the feeling of power; it now applied to all life. The phrase Wille zur Macht first appears in part 1, " Goals"then in part 2, in two sections, "Self-Overcoming" and "Redemption" later in There is will to power where there is life and even the strongest living things will risk their lives for more power.
This suggests that the will to power is stronger than the will to survive. Schopenhauer's "Will to life" thus became a subsidiary to the will to power, which is the stronger will.
Nietzsche thinks his notion of the will to power is far more useful than Schopenhauer's will to live for explaining various events, especially human behavior—for example, Nietzsche uses the will to power to explain both asceticlife-denying impulses and strong, life-affirming impulses in the European tradition,[ clarification needed ] as well as both master and slave morality.
He also finds the will to power to offer much richer explanations than utilitarianism 's notion that all people really want to be happy, or the Platonist 's notion that people want to be unified with the Good. Rolph was another evolutionary anti-Darwinist like Roux, who wished to argue for evolution by a different mechanism than the struggle for existence.
Rolph argued that all life seeks primarily to expand itself. Organisms fulfill this need through assimilation, trying to make as much of what is found around them into part of themselves, for example by seeking to increase intake and nutriment.
Life forms are naturally insatiable in this way. Nietzsche's next published work was Beyond Good and Evilwhere the influence of Rolph seems apparent. Nietzsche writes, Even the body within which individuals treat each other as equals Nietzsche wrote a letter to Franz Overbeck about it, noting that it has "been sheepishly put aside by Darwinists".
He called the seat of heritability the idioplasma, and argued, with a military metaphor, that a more complex, complicatedly ordered idioplasma would usually defeat a simpler rival. Nonetheless, in his notebooks he continues to expand the theory of the will to power. The idea of matter as centers of force is translated into matter as centers of will to power.
Nietzsche wanted to slough off the theory of matter, which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. It does recur in his notebooks, but not all scholars treat these ideas as part of his thought. Here, the will to power as a potential physics is integrated with the postulated eternal recurrence.
Taken literally as a theory for how things are, Nietzsche appears to imagine a physical universe of perpetual struggle and force that repeatedly completes its cycle and returns to the beginning.
But others, such as Paul Loeb, have argued that "Nietzsche did indeed believe in the truth of cosmological eternal recurrence. However, in Nietzsche's unpublished notes later published by his sister as "The Will to Power"Nietzsche sometimes seemed to view the will to power as a more metaphysical general force underlying all reality, not just human behavior—thus making it more directly analogous to Schopenhauer's will to live.
For example, Nietzsche claims the "world is the will to power—and nothing besides!The will to power is not a being, not a becoming, but a pathos--the most elemental fact from which a becoming and effecting first emerge--from The Will to Power, s, Walter Kaufmann transl.
Jürgen Habermas (Düsseldorf, 18 juni ) is een Duits filosoof en benjaminpohle.com wordt gezien als een van de meest vooraanstaande hedendaagse filosofen en als een van de belangrijkste vertegenwoordigers van de Frankfurter Schule..
Zijn bijdragen zijn vooral gericht op de ethiek, de politieke filosofie en de taalfilosofie, alhoewel hij zich ook heeft . ZALIG PASEN HAPPY EASTER benjaminpohle.com Universiteit Nijmegen. One M.
Colsen, MA (Marc) (Promovendus - Fundamentele filosofie Nietzsches hermeneutiek en de experimentele omgang met het nihilisme). "Will to power" (Wille zur Macht) is the name of a concept created by Nietzsche; the title of a projected book which he finally decided not to write; and the title of a book compiled from his notebooks and published posthumously and under suspicious circumstances by his sister and Peter benjaminpohle.com work consists of four separate books, entitled "European .
The will to power is the basic character of our drives or instincts. The essence of a drive is to assert itself. To do so successfully, to achieve expression, is for it to have power.
Power is not a separate aim of the drives. In asserting itself, each drive comes into. Nietzsche ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel.
Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Nietzsche (Begriffsklärung) aufgeführt.