Source The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of in Nipomo, California.
Ferdinand Pauwels — Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople inthe fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas inand Martin Luther 's Protestant Reformation in Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.
Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts. Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
Inthe peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprisingbecause of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule.
Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War — Finally, Ukraine was split along the river Dnieperleaving the western part or Right-bank Ukraine under Polish rule and eastern part Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev under Russian. Later, in —71 the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.
In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian river routesand by the midth century there were Russian settlements in the Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsulaalong the Amur Riverand on the Pacific coast.
Reason and Enlightenment[ edit ] Further information: If there is something you don't know, search for it. The Age of Reason in the Western world is generally regarded modern issues to write about being the start of modern philosophy and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism.
Early 17th-century philosophy is often called the Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed Renaissance philosophy and precede the Age of Enlightenment, but some consider it as the earliest part of the Enlightenment era in philosophy, extending that era to two centuries.
The 18th century saw the beginning of secularization in Europe, rising to notability in the wake of the French Revolution. The Age of Enlightenment is a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the 18th century in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
Enlightenment gained momentum more or less simultaneously in many parts of Europe and America. Developing during the Enlightenment era, Renaissance humanism as an intellectual movement spread across Europe. The basic training of the humanist was to speak well and write typically, in the form of a letter.
The term umanista comes from the latter part of the 15th century. The people were associated with the studia humanitatisa novel curriculum that was competing with the quadrivium and scholastic logic. They self-consciously imitated classical Latin and deprecated the use of medieval Latin.
By analogy with the perceived decline of Latin, they applied the principle of ad fontesor back to the sources, across broad areas of learning. The opposing two sides were, the Ancients Anciens who constrain choice of subjects to those drawn from the literature of Antiquity and the Moderns Moderneswho supported the merits of the authors of the century of Louis XIV.
Fontenelle quickly followed with his Digression sur les anciens et les modernesin which he took the Modern side, pressing the argument that modern scholarship allowed modern man to surpass the ancients in knowledge.
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a period when European ideas in classical physicsastronomybiologyhuman anatomychemistryand other classical sciences were rejected and led to doctrines supplanting those that had prevailed from Ancient Greece to the Middle Ages which would lead to a transition to modern science.
This period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across physicsastronomyand biologyin institutions supporting scientific investigationand in the more widely held picture of the universe.
Individuals started to question all manners of things and it was this questioning that led to the Scientific Revolution, which in turn formed the foundations of contemporary sciences and the establishment of several modern scientific fields.
The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century. French Revolution Toward the middle and latter stages of the Age of Revolution, the French political and social revolutions and radical change saw the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy transform, changing to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
The first revolution led to government by the National Assemblythe second by the Legislative Assemblyand the third by the Directory. The changes were accompanied by violent turmoil which included the trial and execution of the king, vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power.
Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape.
In the following century, France would be governed at one point or another as a republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires. National and Legislative Assembly[ edit ] Main articles: It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention.
The Directory and Napoleonic Era[ edit ] Main articles: The period of this regime 2 November until 10 Novembercommonly known as the Directory or Directoire era, constitutes the second to last stage of the French Revolution. Napoleon, before seizing the title of Emperor, was elected as First Consul of the Consulate of France.
Helena, this brilliant commander, controlled a French Empire that, at its height, ruled a large portion of Europe directly from Paris, while many of his friends and family ruled countries such as Spain, Poland, several parts of Italy and many other Kingdoms Republics and dependencies.
The Napoleonic Era changed the face of Europe forever, and old Empires and Kingdoms fell apart as a result of the mighty and "Glorious" surge of Republicanism.Paper Masters shows you how to write a research paper on any social problem subject using the topics you see on this web site.
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