Background[ edit ] The philosophers who are especially pertinent to the development of existential psychotherapy are those whose works were directly aimed at making sense of human existence. For example, the fields of phenomenology and existential philosophy are especially and directly responsible for the generation of existential therapy. Their works conflicted with the predominant ideologies of their time and committed to the exploration of reality as it can be experienced in a passionate and personal manner. He thought that both were ways of avoiding the anxiety inherent in human existence.
What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for S to know that p? We may distinguish, broadly, between a traditional and a non-traditional approach to answering this question. False propositions cannot be known. Therefore, knowledge requires truth.
A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows. Therefore, knowledge requires belief. Finally, S's being correct in believing that p might merely be a matter of luck. Thus we arrive at a tripartite analysis of knowledge as JTB: S knows that p if and only if p is true and S is justified in believing that p.
According to this analysis, the three conditions — truth, belief, and justification — are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.
They diverge, however, as soon as we proceed to be more specific about exactly how justification is to fulfill this role. According to TK, S's belief that p is true not merely because of luck when it is reasonable or rational, from S's own point of view, to take p to be true. According to evidentialism, what makes a belief justified in this sense is the possession of evidence.
The basic idea is that a belief is justified to the degree it fits S's evidence. NTK, on the other hand, conceives of the role of justification differently. Its job is to ensure that S's belief has a high objective probability of truth and therefore, if true, is not true merely because of luck.
One prominent idea is that this is accomplished if, and only if, a belief originates in reliable cognitive processes or faculties. This view is known as reliabilism. There are cases of JTB that do not qualify as cases of knowledge.
JTB, therefore, is not sufficient for knowledge. Cases like that — known as Gettier-cases[ 5 ] — arise because neither the possession of evidence nor origination in reliable faculties is sufficient for ensuring that a belief is not true merely because of luck.
Consider the well-known case of barn-facades: Henry drives through a rural area in which what appear to be barns are, with the exception of just one, mere barn facades.
From the road Henry is driving on, these facades look exactly like real barns. Henry happens to be looking at the one and only real barn in the area and believes that there's a barn over there.Apr 20, · 15 Secrets to Having the Best Perspective on Life Truth is, if you want to be great in this life, you have to model that greatness in your thinking.
You have to open your eyes up to the beauty in.
Existential psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that, like the existential philosophy which underlies it, is founded upon the belief that human existence is best understood through an in-depth examination of our own experiences. It focuses on concepts that are universally applicable to human existence including death, freedom, responsibility, and the meaning of life.
My Personal Perspective of Coaching - Personal coaching as defined by Biswas – Diener () is a professional relationship in which coaches work with clients to facilitate experiential learning and improve functioning and performance, of in the context of working toward specific goals.
My analysis of the notion draws on the idea of human capability which was first used by Amaryta Sen in assessing life quality, and developed by Martha Nussbaum in her political theory.
According to virtue epistemology, the order of analysis ought to be reversed. We need to begin with the subject herself and assess her epistemic virtues and vices: her "good" and her "bad" ways of forming beliefs. according to an externalist strand of virtue epistemology, it is the very notion of reliability that we should employ to capture.
Philosophy Ethics Kantian Ethics. Abstract: Kant's notion of the good will and the categorical imperative are briefly sketched. Introduction: An attraction to the Kantian doctrines of obligation is begun along the following lines: (1) If the purpose of life were just to achieve happiness, then we would all seek pleasure and gratification and hope that these efforts would lead to happiness.